In carp ponds during filling with water often gets low (weed) fish (verhovka, ruff, gudgeon, roach, etc.), which to a great Kolichestvennye natural food.
In addition, in ponds inhabited by frogs, their larvae, various beetles, causing fish farming safely damage. To combat them in breeding ponds additional predatory fish – pike perch, catfish, pike.
Pike passes to predatory way of life at the age of 1 month. Its diet consists of weed fishes, the body height does not exceed 10% of its length.
Raising perch is usually carried out over 2 years before reaching the mass of 300-500 g. In southern areas with good food provision young of the year perch can reach 300 g. To produce offspring perch using healthy and netravmirovannymi producers at the age of 3-4 years (sex ratio 1:1) caught from natural waters, although producers selected from dvuhletki grown in ponds, fish tanks give the best results. Repair a herd and young stock kept in ponds uterine depth 2-2,5 m with a well-planned bed.
Walleye spawning takes place at temperatures of 7.5-8 degrees in cages, made of nylon or stainless metal mesh and installed at quiet sites with pebbly, sandy or dense clay base. Strew the bottom of the cages disinfected spruce and juniper branches. The lower part of the charge placed on the depth of 0.5 m from the bottom of the pond. Continue reading
In recent decades all over the world especially urgent became the problem of biological invasions, which are defined as all cases of penetration of living organisms into ecosystems situated beyond the original normal distribution. Invasive species are called invasive species or alien species can affect populations, species and communities of aboriginal and Ichtiofauna Flor, sacaste leading to irreversible changes in ecosystems.
The contamination of water bodies and fish farms unexpected species for the Balkhash-ili basin is also very important. Work on acclimatization of new fish species and the impact of faunal assemblages on the results of acclimatization are summarized in the summary of the “Fishes of Kazakhstan”, /1/. At this time, as a result of purposeful and unintentional introductions of fish fauna composition of the basin has more than tripled and now consists of 42 species /2/.
The results of the introduction of herbivorous fish in ponds and pond fish farms of the former Soviet republics led to a massive undesirable replenishment of local fish fauna low-value, non-target species of fish of the Chinese complex. The study of problems related to the spread of weed fish in water bodies of Kazakhstan, were held sporadically for more than 20 years ago /3,4,5,6,7/, but these studies have not been completed.
The aim of this work is vietnamesechristian, species and quantitative composition unplanned of invasive species in fish farms Balkhash basin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials for studies were collected from the following households:
1. Almaty pond farm is located on the river Ashybulak, the basin of Kaskelen. The farm has been breeding and commercial cultivation of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in polyculture with phytovorous fish – white fish ( Hypophtalmihtix molitrix ), white Amur ( Ctenopharyngidon idella ).
2. Chilik pond farm is located on the bed of Lavar and R. Jars. This farm is also engaged in the breeding and rearing of carp in polyculture with herbivorous fish. At this time, the farm grows more valuable fish species: rainbow trout and paddlefish. Continue reading
An artificial pond for breeding or rearing fish can be done.
very simple and cheap (Fig. 39). The bottom and sides it is possible not to coat it. In low position the level will be replenished by groundwater. However, he will be changeable, depend on the amount of moisture in the soil and rainfall, but it can be grown undemanding fish — carp, tench.
Fig. 39. Artificial pond with submerged banks: 1 — compacted soil; 2 – sand cushion (150-200mm); 3 — gravel layer (40-60mm); 4 — concrete reinforced steel mesh diameter 4 — 8mm (120-150mm); 5 — waterproofing; 2 layers of roofing material on bitumen mastic; 6 — protective layer of concrete (50-60mm); 7 — plant soil (120-200mm); 8 — coarse-grained sand (30-50mm); 9 – water; 10 — veneer decorative tiles; 11 — the path of concrete paving blocks; 12 — pebbles; 13 — container for aquatic vegetation; 14 — overflow pipe; 15 — drain pit.
Simple and inexpensive ponds — clay and film. The downside is they are quite easily damaged and not always convenient in operation. Not cheap, but reliable major reservoirs. They do not require special care, well hold water, and the banks not SAG. When using concrete you can make the pond any profile, to make deepening and shoals, underwater stage-terracycle shallow plants.
What a place to devote to an artificial pond on the plot. When you consider that the mini-pond” except for shopping, has aesthetic value, it must be placed in the recreation area, near the house, among the flower beds. It is important that he was not completely obscured by trees and buildings. Continue reading