Intensification of pond culture includes a complex of measures aimed at improving fish productivity of ponds. These include clearing vodopodayuschih and drainage systems, removal from the ponds rigid vegetation, fertilizing the bed of the pond and sowing his crops, feeding fish, etc. the Greatest effect is achieved by feeding fish. Where the feeding is practiced, used multiple (two, three – five times) the landing of fish, fish productivity of reservoirs is increased 5-10 times.
For feeding fish more suitable drain, not overgrown, well reclaimed ponds. Should not be fed to fish in ponds where the water temperature is not heated above 15-16°, and with a large number of trash fish that eat the feed.
Feeding fish spend in the feeding tables or feeding sites, which have not sedimented areas with a depth of 60-70 cm, well lit by the sun. The amount of feed tables, feed or places is determined on the basis of one space for 200 carp.
Feed the square tables are made of tight-fitting plates of thickness 10 mm. the size of the table 1X1,5 m. At the edges of the nail rim with a height of 10 cm. the Trough is fixed by stakes with the bitches on the end to keep them from floating up, or other way.
For feeding carp use both plant and animal food. From plant Carmouche are peas, vetch, lupine, wheat, barley, oats, mill waste, various oil cakes, residues of alcohol, yeast, sugar, starch manufacture, of the animals – the remains of the meat and fish industry and some others. The nutritional value of these forages is characterized by different feed coefficients. Fodder coefficient in fish farming refers to the number showing the amount of feed expressed in kg. must be eaten by fish to produce 1 kg of her weight gain. For example, the feed conversion ratio of flax meal 4; this means that to produce 1 kg gain meat carp have to eat 4 kg of linseed cake.
Forage ratios the most common feed used for common carp feeding, shown in the following table.
The value of the forage ratio variable. It depends on water temperature, oxygen content, condition of the pond, quality of food and its preparation for feeding, the age and health of the fish, techniques of farming, feeding methods, etc. To feed mixtures fed to fish, you should add 3-5% vitamin feed, hay flour, flour of pine needles, spruce, pine and other mineral additives used table salt, sapropel.
Food must be sound and well prepared. All feed given to the fish in a fragmented form, the grain is soaked, from granular mixtures prepare the dough and set pieces. Potatoes and root vegetables fed in cooked form. Frogs, tadpoles, insects mince. Animal products give the fish in a mixture with vegetable foods. The mixture was thoroughly stirred to obtain a pasty mass. In this form, food is well preserved in the water, it is better consumed and digested by the fish. Hand out feed the fish every morning and evening, pre-measuring the water temperature. Give first time at 6 a.m., but if the water temperature is below 15°, in 10 hours.
When water temperature is below 8° feeding fish overturned. Second time food given for 3 to 5 hours before dark. The daily rations should be adjusted depending on the previously given feed palatability and growth in fish.
The amount of feed . required for the whole season, determined by the formula: x=(AHV —p)xk, where A is the fish yield in autumn (pieces); – the increase of one fish over the summer (kg); n – the total growth of fish due to the natural productivity of the pond (kg); To – feed ratio of the feed or mixture.
The total amount of feed distributed along the months of the growing season. In ponds of the Central zone of the European part of Russia carp when normal planting gives the following average gains (in percent): in may – 10, June 25, July 30, August 25 and September 10. In accordance with these indicators of growth and distributing food fish by months of the season.
It should be borne in mind that carp get used to poop. So when you switch to another kind of food should first add it to your old feed, gradually increasing the dosage of the new, and then completely switch to a new kind of food. Feeding of carp is necessary to monitor the sanitary conditions of the pond. Part of the feed inevitably drops to the bottom of the pond and decomposing at a high temperature of water in summer, causing deterioration of the sanitary conditions of the pond. Fish, previously readily suited to such feeders, cease to attend their food and not eating. It is recommended at least once a month to clean the space around the feeders and feeders to rearrange 5-8 m from the old location.
Monitoring the weight gain of common carp is carried out at least twice a month.