How to build a pond for fish
An artificial pond for breeding or rearing fish can be done.
very simple and cheap (Fig. 39). The bottom and sides it is possible not to coat it. In low position the level will be replenished by groundwater. However, he will be changeable, depend on the amount of moisture in the soil and rainfall, but it can be grown undemanding fish — carp, tench.
Fig. 39. Artificial pond with submerged banks: 1 — compacted soil; 2 – sand cushion (150-200mm); 3 — gravel layer (40-60mm); 4 — concrete reinforced steel mesh diameter 4 — 8mm (120-150mm); 5 — waterproofing; 2 layers of roofing material on bitumen mastic; 6 — protective layer of concrete (50-60mm); 7 — plant soil (120-200mm); 8 — coarse-grained sand (30-50mm); 9 – water; 10 — veneer decorative tiles; 11 — the path of concrete paving blocks; 12 — pebbles; 13 — container for aquatic vegetation; 14 — overflow pipe; 15 — drain pit.
Simple and inexpensive ponds — clay and film. The downside is they are quite easily damaged and not always convenient in operation. Not cheap, but reliable major reservoirs. They do not require special care, well hold water, and the banks not SAG. When using concrete you can make the pond any profile, to make deepening and shoals, underwater stage-terracycle shallow plants.
What a place to devote to an artificial pond on the plot. When you consider that the mini-pond” except for shopping, has aesthetic value, it must be placed in the recreation area, near the house, among the flower beds. It is important that he was not completely obscured by trees and buildings.
The profile of the pond can be done with high banks or almost recessed in the ground. From the pond with high banks it is convenient to dump water through the drain hole. Ponds with submerged banks are more practical, look beautiful and more convenient for growing water plants and fish.
The outline of an artificial pond it is better to make round, oval or curvilinear. In the choice of the shape of the reservoir you can take a rich sense of fantasy.
The depth of the reservoir depends on its purpose. For cultivation of fish it should be about 1 to 1.5 m. the pond In desirable and shallow parts with a depth of 0.3-0.5 m, where the water warms up. If you intend to keep fish for the winter, it is necessary to arrange special devices — wintering wells, or pits. You need to keep in mind” something to fight with winter fish kills from lack of oxygen in water is quite difficult.
As an artificial reservoir on the site is complex, it is more practical to do it with the bottom of the slope, with indentations for vegetable soil, and the coast-slopes — with concrete stairs-terraces. Steps for planting shallow water plants in small containers suit a width of 30-40cm. Depth above the first stage is 20-30cm. Conveniently down the stairs and into the reservoir during its repair, cleaning, catching fish. They don’t have to do the entire perimeter of the reservoir. On this terrace you can put topsoil. So it does not crumble on the bottom, along the edge of the stage, it is desirable to make the side height of 12-15cm.
When constructing water area of 7-10 m2 recommended reinforcing concrete with steel mesh or wire, which is cut into rods of the required length (depending on the size of the bottom and sides) and placed crosswise with the side of the cell 20-25cm. In places perekrestki rods tie wire soft. The valve stack so that it is inside the concrete. For this purpose, under the bars on the gravel bottom enclose small pebbles.
To replenish the pond water at the same time with reinforcement Vodootvodnoy lay pipe from the water main or other source of water. For this purpose it is desirable to use the runoff rainwater from the roofs of buildings. The flow of water can be provided by devices of small waterfall, water cascade or Mineracao, making a picturesque pond and natural. During the reinforcement also install drain pipe (or overflow drain) at the level of a desired constant level of water. The drain pipe is mounted, if there is a drainage ditch, ditch, Creek. In this case, the drain hole is placed on the bottom or bottom side wall of the slope. If the water has nowhere to drain, it is pumped and used for irrigation. The excess water overflow pipe is received in the drain pipe or into a special water-absorbing pit (dug into the ground a barrel without a bottom).
The bottom of the pond is poured concrete: 1 part cement (grade 400 or higher), 2 parts coarse sand, 3 parts gravel. Concrete mixture shall be compacted. Bottom When the concrete is solidified, start building the walls. Better to make them with some bias from the center of the reservoir. Concreted in wooden formwork. If you think the curved shore, use a flexible formwork made of plywood. The thickness of the walls and the bottom, 12-15 cm In decorative finishing of concrete walls-the banks are employing a variety of techniques, including the tiles. On concrete walls the effective small cobbles and boulders.
Fill the pond with water, it is recommended not earlier than 10-14 days after the end of concreting when the concrete hardens enough. First, wash out the reservoir, filling with concrete the thicket to the top with water. Through-2-3 days it is drained, contribute to the bottom and step-terrace sand, vegetable soil, planting aquatic plants and finally fill with water. After 2-3 days you can stocking the pond.
Water from the pond to drain preferably in the fall for renovations, catching fish, cleaning bottom cleaning plants. In addition, the concrete structure without water easier to tolerate winter frosts.