The flora and fauna of the Black sea

Over the past Millennium has developed this unique shape of the Black sea. This is the most fresh sea, with the lowest content of salt in sea water, the gentle sea-to-person around the globe!

The black sea is the most Northern subtropics in the world . the amazing beauty of the southern nature. It walks under the shade of palm and eucalyptus trees. It’s the heady aroma of blooming magnolias and meadow grasses. The Mediterranean sea brought the most modern inhabitants of the Black sea . The few remaining survivors of the disaster relict freshwater species, including the famous Azov-black sea sturgeon . took refuge in the river deltas of the black sea region .

The flora of the Black sea

The flora of the Black sea includes 270 species of multicellular green, brown, red benthic algae (Cystoseira, Phyllophora, zoster, kladofora, Ulva, enteromorpha, etc.).

In the composition of phytoplankton in the Black sea — not less than six hundred species. Among them, dinoflagellates — loricate flagellates (prorocentrum micans, ceratium furca, small scripsiella Scrippsiella trochoidea, etc.), dinoflagellates (dinophysis, protoperidinium, alexandrium), various diatoms, etc.

The fauna of the Blacksea

The fauna of the Black sea is markedly poorer than the Mediterranean sea . In the Black sea is home to 2.5 million species of animals (including 500 single-celled species, 160 species of vertebrates — fish, mammals, 500 species of crustaceans, 200 species of mollusks, and the rest — invertebrates of different species), for comparison, in the Mediterranean — about 9 thousand species.

Among the main reasons for the relative poverty of fauna of the Black sea . a wide range of water salinities, moderately cold water,

the presence of hydrogen sulfide at high depths. In this regard, the Black sea is suitable for habitation fairly undemanding species, at all stages of development which do not require great depths.

At the bottom of the Black sea inhabited by mussels, oysters, pecten, and the mollusc-predator Rapana included with vehicles from the Far East. In the crevices of the coastal cliffs and among the rocks is home to many crabs, there are shrimps, there are various kinds of jellyfish (the most common are Aurelia and kornerot), sea anemones, sponges.

Fish of the Black sea

Among the fish species in the Black sea . various species of gobies (the goby-Golovach, bull-whip, round goby, the goby martovich, goby Amur sleeper), Azov anchovy, black sea anchovy (anchovy) shark-spiny dogfish, flatfish-Glossa, a mullet of five species, lofar, hake (hake), sea ruff, barbula (common black sea mullet), haddock, mackerel, horse mackerel, black sea-Azov sea herring, black sea and Azov kilka, etc. Meet sturgeon (Beluga, black sea and Azov sturgeon).

Among the dangerous fishes of the Black sea — sea dragon (the most dangerous — poisonous spines of the dorsal fin and Gill covers), and a noticeable black sea Scorpion fish, sting ray (sea cat) with poisonous spines on the tail.


Birds common gulls, petrels, ducks-Pochards, cormorants and several other species. Mammals are represented in the Black sea two species of Dolphin (Dolphin-bottlenose Dolphin and Bonn conventions), the Azov-black sea common sea pig (often called Azov Dolphin), as well as the white-bellied seal.

We are not local is an eater of mollusk Rapana

Some species of animals, inhabiting the Black sea . often brought in there through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles by the current or swim on their own.

So is the mollusc-predator Rapana arrived in the Black sea in 1947 and to date almost ate all the oysters and all sea scallops. Young Rapana bore through the prey’s shell and drink the contents, and adults secrete mucus, which paralyzes sash mollusk Rapana and allows the host to eat. So hard to hold Rapana could because due to the low water salinity in the sea there are no natural enemies of a starfish .

Rapana is edible. You can cook delicious soup, and the meat resembles sturgeon. It is believed that Rapana is the closest relative of the extinct mollusks from the shells of which the ancient Phoenicians got their famous purple dye.

Shark Katran

The only shark inhabiting the Black sea . – prickly shark ( spiny dogfish ) — rarely grow over one meter in length, is afraid of people and rarely comes to shore, holding in the cold water layers at depth. However, spiny dogfish is quite valuable fishing trophy (it is believed that the fat of the liver of this shark has healing properties) and can be dangerous for the fisherman: dorsal fins Katran provided with large poisonous spikes.


Most often found in the sea jellyfish with the names of Aurelia and kornerot. Kornerot is the largest black sea jellyfish, Aurelia is the smallest. If Aurelia is rarely more than 30 cm in diameter, the size of the dome kornerot can reach half a meter.

Aurelia is not poisonous, but kornerot can cause a burn similar to a nettle sting. Burn may cause light burning, redness, and sometimes can appear and blisters. Not to experience the effect of the venom of this beautiful jellyfish with a little purple dome, enough for her to get her away from himself, holding the upper part of the dome, on which no tentacles.

Although there are those vacationers who deliberately seek a meeting with the stinging jellyfish. They believe in the healing power of the poison of kornerot. It is believed that if you RUB the body with Medusa, you can be cured from sciatica. This is a misconception. To facilitate this therapy does not work, and causes suffering and Medusa, and the patient.

Why the Black sea glowing?

Among planktonic algae found in the Black sea . there is such an unusual appearance as noctiluca (nochesvetka) — algae is a predator, feeding on ready organic substances and in addition has the ability to fosforescente (thanks to this Alga in August, sometimes there is the red sea).

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